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BELOW are the text extracts from each image
Photographs are - Left: Portland looking West Right: Wolgan Street
Limestone is a versatile rock. Slabs can be utilised for building or for kerbing. When coarsely crushed, it makes good road metal. In furnaces where iron, copper or lead is smelted, limestone is the ideal flux, and when it lacks magnesium, it is the principal component of Portland cement.
When Governor Macquarie travelled through Lithgow City in 1815, he lamented 'that neither Coals or Lime-stone have been yet discovered in the Western Country; articles in themselves of so much importance, that the want of them must be severely felt whenever that country shall be settled'. Both of these desirable minerals were found in abundance during the first generation of settlement in Lithgow City and the major lime deposits which were opened up over the rest of the nineteenth century laid the basis both for smelting iron and copper and for the manufacture of Portland cement.
Photographs are - Left: Portland Co-op Store Right: C.A. Pass
The future lay around Portland, however, and the creation of a major cement works there in 1889 ensured the maximum utilisation of the limestone deposits. The cement works operated by the Cullen Bullen Lime and Cement Co. (1889 - 95), the Ivanhoe Lime and Cement Works and Colliery after 1895, the commonwealth Portland Cement Co. Ltd. after 1900, the Associated Portland Cement Manufactures U.K. from the 1940's, and finally, after 1974, Blue Circle Southern Cement Ltd. lasted until 1991: after 1991 the plant closed but the limestone quarries remained open, supplying the cement works at Maldon. Other quarries also operated at Portland, run in the 1920's by the Sydney and North Sydney Lime company and the Great Western Lime company. The Portland lime had been used by the blast-furnace in Lithgow both under Sandford and Hoskins.
Photographs are - Left: Williwa Street, Passing Wolgan Street Right: Band Rotunda, Saville Park
The first quarry was in the area later known as Portland. Peter MacPherson, overseer for George Innes, Annabella Boswell's father, received a grant of 256 hectares at Portland in 1828 and by 1832 had opened a quarry, named the area Limestone Flat and built a homestead of limestone. Adjacent to MacPherson's property (which had been sold to the explorer Lawson in 1837), Thomas Murray received a grant of portion 52 in 1863 and Murray built the first lime kiln in the area, where the Commonwealth Portland Cement Co. quarries were later excavated in Portland.
Once the western railway opened, commercial exploitation of limestone became feasible and the 1870's saw considerable activity in and around Portland. The deposits around the later cement works, originally held by MacPherson and Murray, were exploited in the 1870's by brothers called Thomas, and by William Hutchison. Lime products were manufactured by the North Sydney Lime Co. and by individuals such as Tweedie and Haigh. When Murray sold his land in 1882, George Raffan and Currie formed the Cullen Bullen Lime and Cement Company which was producing Kangaroo cement by 1890.
Photographs are - Left: Looking towards Cement Works from Wolgan Street Right: First School in Portland
Portland owed its existence to the limestone quarries and cement works. It was gazetted as a town in 1906, although a small school had opened in 1884 and had to be expanded in 1895. The first hotel had opened in 1901, as construction work for the major cement works began. Boarding Houses flourished to accommodate the large number of unmarried workers, while there was a building boom in the First World War period. The police station opened in 1910, a district hospital in 1913. The population of Portland reached 2000 in the 1920's and peaked at 3125 in 1948, with 744 houses in occupation.